What This Means for Instruction
Here are some general guidelines to help educators plan and implement
instruction in the writing process:
Provide instruction in the writing process. Remind students that the process
is not a lock-step set of stages but a recursive process which professionals,
as well as student writers, use.
Design writing assignments that have a clear audience focus. Teachers may want
to provide instruction and guidance to students to address audience needs in
Establish goals for writing within writing tasks, for individuals or the class
as needed. For example, within an essay-writing assignment, have students who
need extra work pay particular attention to the development of conclusions or
the use of supporting details (Marzano, 2001).
Remember that not all parts of the process are necessary for every piece of
writing; focused mini-lessons can be useful for targeting specific writing
skills. See resources from Lucy Calkins or Nancie Atwell for classroom
suggestions on teaching writing.
Provide students with models of good writing.
Provide students who are experiencing difficulty with scaffolds. These may be,
for example, skeletons that help students organize their ideas into a
framework tailored to a particular writing type (Rosenshine & Meister, 1992).
Allow time for each stage of the writing process: planning, prewriting,
drafting and revising and editing. Model for students how to engage in each
step, as necessary.
Involve students in the assessment of their work. Involve students in the
creation and refinement of rubrics at the beginning of writing tasks. Have
students engage in peer- and self-editing of drafts using those rubrics.
Save student work on portfolios or some other organization system and have
students reflect on their progress over time (U.S. Department of Education,
Ohio Model Curricula Connection
See English language arts lessons written around benchmarks and indicators in
the Writing Process Standard.