Carpenter, T. P., & Lindquist, M. M. (1989). Summary and conclusions. In M. M. Lindquist (Ed.), Results From the Fourth Mathematics Assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (pp. 160-169). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Eisenhardt, S. (1999). Trying on a new pair of shoes: Changing mathematical instructional practices and beliefs. Dissertation. UMI Dissertation Services.
Fuchs, L., Fuchs, D., Karns, K., Hamlett, C. L., Dutka, S., & Katzaroff, M. (1996). The relation between student ability and the quality and effectiveness of explanations. American Educational Research Journal, 33 (3), 631-664.
Hatano, G., & Inagaki, K. (1991). Sharing cognition through collective comprehension activity. In L.B. Resnick, J.M. Levine, & S.D. Teasley (Eds.), Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition (pp. 331-348). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Hiebert, J., Carpenter, T. P., Fennema, E., Fuson, K., Wearne, D., Murray, H., Olivier, A., & Human, P. (1997). Making Sense. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Hiebert, J. & Wearne, D. (1993). Instructional tasks, classroom discourse, and students' learning in a second-grade classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 30 (2), 393-425.
Kamii, C. (1988). Children Continue to Reinvent Arithmetic. New York: Teachers College Press.
Kouba, V. L., Zawojewski, J. S., & Strutchens, M. E. (1997). What do students know about numbers and operations? In P. A. Kenney & E. A. Silver (Eds.), Results From the Sixth Mathematics Assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (pp. 87-140). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Lampert, M. (1992). Teaching and learning long division. In E. G. Leinhardt, R. Putnam, & R. Hattrup (Eds.), Analysis of Arithmetic for Mathematics Teaching (pp. 221-282). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Lo, J. J., Wheatley, G., & Smith, A. C. (1994). The participation, beliefs, and development of arithmetic meaning of a third grade student in mathematics class. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 25 (1), 30-49.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.
Nattiv, A. (1994). Helping behavior and math achievement gains of students using cooperative learning. Elementary School Journal, 94, 285-297.
Siegler, R. S. (1995). How does change occur: A microgenetic study of number conservation. Cognitive Psychology, 28, 225-73.
Silver, E. A. (1997). Learning from the NAEP: Looking forward and looking ahead. In P. A. Kenney & E. A. Silver (Eds.), Results From the Sixth Mathematics Assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (pp. 279-288). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Southern Regional Education Board. (2002). Getting Students Ready for Algebra I: What Middle Grades Students Need to Know and be Able to do. Atlanta, GA: Author.
Sutton, J., & Krueger, A. (Eds.). (2002). EDThoughts: What We Know About Mathematics Teaching and Learning. Aurora, CO: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning.
Webb, N. M. (1991). Task-related verbal interaction and mathematics learning in small groups. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education, 22, 366-389.
Wood, T. (1993). Creating an environment for learning mathematics: Social interaction perspective. Rethinking elementary school mathematics: Insights and issues. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education Monograph, 15-20. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.